DOI: https://doi.org/10.30977/BUL.2219-5548.2019.87.0.109

Methods of the driver’s activity when fulfilling the tasks in emergency

E. Poltavski, V. Kuzhelovych, D. Petrukovich

Анотація


The article deals with the algorithm of the vehicle driver control activity using the method of logic-probabilistic modeling. When performing military automobile transporting in conditions of intense traffic flow, in conditions of performance of military-combat tasks the driver undergoes a significant amount of visual and auditory influences, the frequency of which increases significantly in situations that can cause incidents of traffic accidents. The driver is the operator of the system «driver-car-road-environment», the service processes are mainly reduced to the reception and analysis of operational information, decision-making that controls the actions and control of their implementation. Lack of time and necessary information, intense and uneven information load while driving the vehicle leads to the development of the driver psychological stress. At the same time, the important psycho-physiological characteristics of the driver deteriorate substantially, such as a complicated motor reaction, characterized by the average duration of response time, emotional stability and stability of attention. The factors that determine the possibility of traffic accidents, among others, include driver's level of qualification, his physical and psycho-physiological characteristics. In this case, the term of the reaction of the driver, which is an integral indicator of the visual-motor system, is of great importance. A long reaction time increases the risk of road traffic accidents which can cause both material and human losses. The car is the object of management in the «driver-car-road-environment» system. In recent years there is a continuous increase in the number of cars and improving their speed characteristics. In this regard, the safe operation of a modern car requires the use of modern pedagogical tools and training methods for drivers. In these conditions, not the knowledge of its design is essential for the effective operation of the car, but the knowledge of its properties as an object of management, understanding the role of automatic systems, the ability to perform operations with the control of these systems,  the ideas about changing the properties of the car in the case of the failure of such systems. The safety of the vehicle driving depends on the psychological characteristics of drivers, the ability to perceive unexpected information quickly and respond to itadequately. Vision, hearing and touch are the most important channels of perception of information. The level of safe driving depends on the characteristics of mental processes, such as: attention, memory, thinking, psychomotor, sensation and perception, since they play an important role in the vehicle driving. Estimation of the driver's activity in terms of the degree of complexity of the driving of motor vehicles of standard sizes and the nature of the route must be complex, taking into account the design features of the control of vehicles and conditions of movement on the route. It must be carried out in different ways and take into account its various components. During the work the driver performs a large number of actions which seem to be quite simple such as pedaling, pressing the levers, turning on and off the toggle switches, turning the steering wheel. All these driving actions are carried out in a certain order, depending on typical traffic situations. During the operation, the driver performs a large number of motor activities, and the amount of effort applied to the control of the car, is quite large and different. Therefore, it is advisable not just to take into account the typical actions of the driver, but to estimate them by the amount of the efforts applied to the control of the car. A significant disadvantage of this method is the disregard for technical factors that affect the complexity of the driver activity of vehicle management (overall length, gross vehicle weight, type of gearbox design). It should also be noted that the nature of the connection between the complexity of the official driver activity and fuel consumption can be different. For example, considering the movement of a vehicle with a variable longitudinal profile of the traffic route, it can be noted that fuel consumption is greater when moving on the rise, and the difficulty, on the contrary, when driving on the descent. Comparison of fuel consumption and complexity of vehicle control processes, equipped with a hydro mechanical gearbox and conventional mechanical gear shows that fuel economy is less, and the complexity of the driving is lower. The use of methods of algorithmic analysis in road transport is a scientifically grounded method, an analysis of working processes with the introduction of their quantitative characteristics, having a certain psycho physiological content. The principle of this method is to decompose the work process into qualitatively different elemental components. The work of the car driver is presented as a logical activity, consisting of a set of actions and operational units of information. Examples of application of the algorithm and evaluation of the driver's activity on the control of the vehicle are considered.


Ключові слова


algorithm; car-driver-road system; control actions; operational unit of information; information load

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Посилання


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