Major reasons of road-transport accidents and their consequences
Ключові слова:traffic flow, traffic intensity, speed of movement, traffic accident, driver reliability, traffic management.
АнотаціяProblem. The functioning of the traffic system is a complex dynamic system, which is characterized by the interaction of traffic and pedestrian flows. This system consists of four main elements: driver-car-road-environment. In the process of examining roads and streets on the basis of the analysis of statistical data on road traffic accidents, the sections are identified in which the number of road traffic accidents per unit length is greater than on the others. Goal. The purpose of the article is to justify the need to improve the system for collecting and processing data on road traffic accidents. In-depth studies and analysis of traffic accidents provides a reliable basis for assessing the causes and the presence of the human factor in traffic accidents. The implementation of measures to prevent traffic accidents in solving the problem of improving traffic safety should be considered as a priority. Metodology. Traffic accidents are caused by various reasons. Studying them is very important for the development of measures to ensure traffic safety. Based on the analysis of road traffic accidents in settlements, it was found that the accident rate depends on the following factors: traffic intensity and speed, traffic flow, technical condition of streets and roads, visibility conditions, the presence of urban passenger transport stops, traffic management schemes within the intersection, the intensity of pedestrian traffic, the technical condition of the vehicle, the psychophysiology of road users. Results. Incorrect driver actions are the cause of 65% to 75% of all traffic accidents, 15% to 25% of all traffic accidents are caused by road conditions, and due to a technical malfunction of the car, up to 10% of all traffic accidents. The reasons for road traffic accidents with injured people are driving to the oncoming traffic – lane 21.0% of all road traffic accidents with injured people, exceeding the safe speed of movement (25.0%), failure of control (11.0%), as well as non-observance of the distance (8.0%), violation of the rules for maneuvering (6.0%), driving while intoxicated (7.0%). Practical value. The study of factors determining the primary impact on road safety is one of the most difficult tasks. In addition, the views on the factors and causes that underlie the occurrence of a traffic accident change with the accumulation of experience in the organization and regulation of traffic and research in the field of road safety. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the criteria by which the selection of priority factors will be carried out, the study of which will reduce accident rate on the road network.
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