Evaluation of the Level of Environmental Impact of Passenger Transportation on Air Quality of Urbanized Areas
Ключові слова:urbanized territory, atmospheric air, passenger transportation, environmental protection measures, environmental standards
Solution of environmental problems of urbanized areas is becoming increasingly important in modern conditions. Such problems include pollution of surface runoff and open water, soil, changes in natural bio-and phytocenoses, accumulation of waste, parametric effects, but the greatest negative impact on the air is mobile sources of pollution. Passenger transport should be singled out separately among them, since the problem of passenger transportation in the cities of Ukraine is solved mainly by increasing the fleet of buses running on diesel engines, leading to a deterioration in their environmental quality. Goal. The goal of the work is to determine the quality of atmospheric air in the zone of influence of highway section in an urbanized area during passenger transportation and to increase its level by developing natural protection measures. Methodology. The assessment of the level of environmental impact was carried out using a calculation method based on the normative document “Methodology for determining motor vehicle emissions for carrying out summary calculations of urban air pollution emissions”, taking into account the data obtained by field measurements. Results. Demonstrate a significant level of eco-destructive impact of passenger transport (identified as the main source of environmental impact on atmospheric air), since there are significant exceedances of the maximum permissible concentrations for all substances under study. Originality. The level of impact of passenger transportation (as a component of the total flow of vehicles) on the level of air quality of urbanized territories was determined for the first time. Practical value. Typical intersection, environmental recommendations have been developed that can be applied to such sections of the city’s road network based on the assessment of the level of impact of passenger traffic on the process of formation of the environmental quality of the atmospheric air in the zone of it’s impact.
Moriarty P. and Wang S. J. Eco-efficiency Indicators for Urban Transport. J. Sustain. Dev. Energy, Water Enviroment Syst. 2015. Vol. 3. № 2. Р. 183–195.
Malla, S., Assessment of Mobility and its Impact on Energy use and Air Pollution in Nepal. Energy. 2014. Vol. 69. Р. 485–496.
Podvysotskyi R.K. Environmental aspects of passenger transportation. Materialy nauk.-prakt. konf. «Galuzevi problemy ekologichnoi' bezpeky» [Sectoral problems of ecological safety: Materials of sciences.-practice. conf.]. Kharkov, 2018. Р. 148–151.
Cárdenas Rodríguez M., Dupont-Courtade L. and Oueslati W., Air Pollution and Urban Structure Linkages: Evidence from European Cities. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016. Vol. 53. Р. 1–9.
Ortego A., Valero A., Abadías A. Environmental Impacts of Promoting New Public Transport Systems in Urban Mobility: A Case Study. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems. 2017. Vol. 5. Issue 3.
Peng B., Du H., Ma S., Fan Y. and Broadstock D. Urban Passenger Transport Energy Saving and Emission Reduction Potential: A Case Study for Tianjin, China. Energy Convers. Manag. 2015. Vol. 102. Р. 4–16.
Xue Y., Guan H., Corey J., Zhang B., Yan H., Han Y. and Qin H. Transport Emissions and Energy Consumption Impacts of Private Capital Investment in Public Transport. Sustainability. 2017. Vol. 9. Issue 10. Р. 377–395.
Grabelnikov V.A., Shevchenko O.V. Organization of regulation of the system of urban public passenger transport. Bulletin of the Donetsk Academy of Motor Transport, 2013. № 4. Р. 4–9.
Zhelnovach G.M. Complex ecological monitoring of ukraine highways. Bulletin of KhNAHU, 2011. Vol. 52. Р. 15–18.
Metodika opredelenija vybrosov avtotransporta dlja provedenija svodnyh raschetov vybrosov zagrjaznenija atmosfery gorodov [Methods for determining motor vehicle emissions for carrying out summary calculations of urban air pollution emissions]. Moskow. 16 p.
Berljand M.E. Prognoz i regulirovanie zagrjaznenija atmosfery [Prediction and regulation of air pollution]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1985. 272 p.
Ambarcumjan V.V., Nosov V.B. Jekologicheskaja bezopasnost' avtomobil'nogo transporta [Ecological safety of motor transport]. Moskow, Nauchtehlitizdat Publ., 1999. 244 p.